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Reduced domestic expansion was equally bad for the much needed economic expansion through increased credit for capital formation, expanded production and exchange and business investments. Of course not good for consumption e.g. Imports of cars by the Zambian elite. There should not be a blanket reduction in expansion of credit!! The consequence of a reduced expansion of credit was to reduce job creation, which was and is still badly needed in situations of poverty.

The IMF provided so called Structural Adjustment Facilities and later called Poverty Reduction and growth Facilities.

The above was just a glimpse of some of the immediate concerns that occupied the minds of people in civil society. It was essential therefore that there be some voice at different levels to provide some kind of countervailing power to the forces that were imposing some direction to the future of the African continent. At the SAPES Meeting in Lesotho in 1992 it was agreed that while SAPs were a key issue to research and write about, indeed lobby on as was being done by SAPES, a new focus on Debt in itself was essential.

In 1994 Opa Kapijimpanga started work on Debt and linked up with the Forum on Debt and Development FONDAD then based in London and eventually “taken over” by the European Network on Debt and Development (EURODAD) based in Brussels. AFRODAD was therefore a platform for Africa while EURODAD was a platform for Europe. There emerging platforms in Latin America and Asia that both EURODAD and AFRODAD worked with beginning at the Social Summit in Copenhagen in 1995.

During 1994 and 1995 Opa Kapijimpanga travelled across the continent to gather support for creating country platforms for discussing the debt crisis. Civil society organizations in Uganda, Mozambique, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya, Cameroon, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Angola and Ethiopia were enthusiastic about the idea and they boarded the AFRODAD train. From the very beginning it was agreed that AFRODAD would only be the African Platform for the various country coalitions which would undertake research and analysis at country level and engage their governments and creditors at the country level. Using the AFRODAD platform they would engage the sub-regional (e.g. ECOWAS), regional (Africa Union, Economic Commission for Africa, the African Development Bank etc.) and multilateral institutions at the global level (World Bank, the IMF, the United Nations). Coalitions on Debt were formed in these countries during 1995 and 1996. Some survived and others did not and for various reasons. Nonetheless, the various formations participated in the campaigns alongside the Jubilee 2000 movement and others to secure debt relief for African countries which started with various Paris Club initiatives and was concluded with the HIPC process followed by the Multilateral Debt Restructuring Initiative (MDRI) of the IMF with the last country Chad having reached the Completion Point in March 2015! The whole process took nearly 20 years!